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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
agen casino terpercaya commented on 11-Aug-2018 03:00 AM
Very interesting topic, regards for putting up.
Felicia commented on 11-Aug-2018 03:19 AM
Doskonały artykuł, ogólnie się z Tobą zgadzam, chociaż w niektórych kwestiach bym polemizowała.
Z pewnością Twój blog zasługuje na szacunek. Z pewnością
tu wrócę.
Judi Poker terpercaya commented on 11-Aug-2018 03:49 AM
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Anyway I'll be subscribing on your feewds or even I fulfillment you get admission to constantly fast.
Situs Domino99 online commented on 11-Aug-2018 03:54 AM
Heya outstanding blog! Does running a blog similar to
this take a grezt deal of work? I have virtually no expertise
in coding however I was hoping to start my own blog soon.
Anyway, should you have any recommendations or techniqhes for new blog owners please share.
I understand this is off topic nevertheless I just wanted to ask.
Kudos!
Verlene commented on 11-Aug-2018 04:42 AM
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bingobet88.info commented on 11-Aug-2018 05:41 AM
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) I handle such info a lot. I used to be looking for this particular
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luck.
Situs BandarQ Online commented on 11-Aug-2018 06:19 AM
Woah! I'm really enjoying the template/theme off this blog.
It's simple, yet effective. A lot of times it's challoenging to get tyat
"perfect balance" between usability and visual appeal.
I muyst say you have done a great job with this. Also, the blog
loads super fast for mme on Chrome. Superb Blog!
dresses commented on 11-Aug-2018 04:32 PM
Try it on and evaluate it carefully, maybe bringing a friend along to offer feedback.
These items will enhance the appearance of your chest.
Your choice of print should complement your body shape for its enhancement.
You also have to think about the rest of the important things for your
wedding. On some occasions, it is tolerable to wear a fancy cocktail dress, and yet that really
may depend on some time of year and also the guests. Back in 2006, Acura's marketing department held an in-house design contest to produce a concept that filled a void in Acura's market.
happy music commented on 11-Aug-2018 08:59 PM
I was honestly so moved by this that I dreamed up this inspired playlist!
pukimak commented on 11-Aug-2018 09:24 PM
Wow that was strange. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but
after I clicked submit my comment didn't appear.
Grrrr... well I'm not writing all that over again. Anyways, just wanted to say wonderful blog!
Patrick commented on 11-Aug-2018 11:20 PM
4)- Tire clímax das suas espectativas. Que fazer? http://phury.net/mail/info.php?a%5B%5D=quanto+tempo+dura+o+tratamento+de+ejacula%C3%A7ao+precoce+(%3Ca+href%3Dhttp://www.linux-france.org/%7Eglamiral/prj/upload/phpinfo.php%3Fa%255B%255D%3Dmedico%2Bespecialista%2Bem%2Bimpotencia%2Bmasculina%2B%255B%253Ca%2Bhref%253Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fstefan7527oz.blogspeak.net%252Fother-food-items-honey-lemon-juice-garlic-ginger-olive-oil-unsalted-nuts-grounded-black-pepper-herbal-teas-and-lots-of-water%253Esite%2Bcom%2Bdetalhes%2Bdisto%253C%252Fa%253E%255D%3Eacesse+o+endere%C3%A7o%3C/a%3E)
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Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! By the way, how could we communicate?
emagrecer r commented on 12-Aug-2018 02:35 AM
Eu não tenho como saber se seria só comigo ou se alguém encontrou algum
problema com seu artigo. Parece como se que alguns dos
textos dentro do seu post está aparecendo fora da tela. Pode outra pessoa por
favor dar um feedback para eu saber se isso está acontecendo
só comigo. Isso pode ser um erro com meu navegador,
eu vi acontecer a mesma coisa com outro blog outro dia. Desde já agradeço! http://www.40underforty.ca/tan-jessica-hsiao-ching/
It's difficult to find еxperienced people aЬoyt this subject, but you sߋund like you knoᴡ what you're talking about!
Thanks
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your sites really nice, keep it up! I'll go ahead and bookmark
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SibylJuicy commented on 12-Aug-2018 11:16 AM
Hi. I see that you don't update your blog too often. I know that writing posts
is boring and time consuming. But did you know that there is a tool
that allows you to create new articles using existing content (from
article directories or other blogs from your niche)?
And it does it very well. The new articles are unique
and pass the copyscape test. You should try miftolo's tools
Sprouts Café commented on 12-Aug-2018 02:02 PM
I've learn a few good stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting.
I surprise how so much effort you put to create one of these magnificent informative web site.
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Post a Comment




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Trackback Link
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