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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
leather commented on 12-Oct-2017 11:13 AM
I really like reading an article that will make men and women think.
Also, many thanks for allowing for me to comment!
best time to post on social media commented on 12-Oct-2017 08:17 PM
Fb: 2 occasions per day, at most.
Hayden commented on 12-Oct-2017 11:25 PM
Loving the info on this website, you have done outstanding job on the posts.


Also visit my blogEstate sales
Luciano Ruley commented on 14-Oct-2017 06:14 AM
If you Like Phone Hacking And Leaked Pics Check This Out.. http://howtohackcellphones.blogspot.no/
shema hebraico commented on 15-Oct-2017 07:25 AM
*There are some interesting points in time in this article but I don?t know if I see all of them center to heart. There is some validity but I will take hold opinion until I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we want more! Added to FeedBurner as well
Francesco commented on 15-Oct-2017 01:18 PM
It's genuinely very complicated in this busy life to listen news on TV, so I simply use the web for that purpose, and take the most recent news.


My web blog:Sell Anything
country commented on 15-Oct-2017 04:17 PM
This site really has all the info I needed about this subject
and didn't know who to ask.
Pilar commented on 16-Oct-2017 12:02 AM
Greetings from Carolina! I'm bored at work so I decided to check out your website on my iphone during lunch break.
I enjoy the knowledge you provide here and can't wait to take a look when I get home. I'm surprised at how fast your blog loaded on my phone .. I'm not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, good site!

Here is my web-site ::Ebay And Auctions
pokergo commented on 16-Oct-2017 09:06 AM
*Oh my goodness! an amazing article dude. Thank you However I am experiencing issue with ur rss . Don?t know why Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anyone getting identical rss problem? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx
smoothie recipes with almond milk and yogurt commented on 18-Oct-2017 01:02 PM
Two small apples add acquainted crispness.
Rachael commented on 19-Oct-2017 11:44 AM
Very interesting information!Perfect just what I was looking for!


Feel free to surf to my site -History Of Bilingual Education In California
ונוסשופ פיג'מות commented on 19-Oct-2017 01:07 PM
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Cambridge Therapeutics HIFU commented on 20-Oct-2017 01:50 AM
Hello i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read this piece of writing i thought i could also make comment due to this good paragraph.|
Realself Cambridge Therapeutics commented on 20-Oct-2017 02:55 AM
My programmer is hoping to persuade me to move to . Net from PHP. I've always disliked the idea due to the expenses. But he is trying none the less. I've been utilizing and am anxious about shifting to a different stage. I've heard great things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I could transfer my WordPress posts? Any help will be appreciated.
Realself Cambridge Therapeutics commented on 20-Oct-2017 03:46 AM
This blog is unquestionably rather convenient since Now i'm at the moment creating an internet floral website - although I are only starting out therefore it's really fairly small, and nothing like this site. Can connect to a few of the discussions here because they are quite. Thanks much. Zoey Olsen
Cambridge Therapeutics HIFU commented on 20-Oct-2017 05:23 AM
I really like what you guys tend to be up too. This type of clever work and exposure! Keep up the awesome works guys I've included you guys to my own blogroll.
result-driven pr agency commented on 22-Oct-2017 01:55 PM
Now in spite of the threat of terror, in spite of the threat of weapons of mass destruction, on the whole the world is
in a better place.
Ruthie commented on 24-Oct-2017 08:42 PM
There is evidently a lot to identify about this.
I suppose you made certain good points in features also.

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jeans femme pas cher commented on 24-Oct-2017 09:00 PM
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sd sd commented on 26-Oct-2017 03:13 AM
This douche bag loves his illegal bretheren because hes a itiaen of the world and we should be ashamed of ourselves I got news for you Asswipe get your asswiping ass back to the craphole where you came from with all of your illegal beaners
sd sd commented on 26-Oct-2017 05:54 AM
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sd sd commented on 26-Oct-2017 01:01 PM
Aw, it was an incredibly good post. In concept I would like to put in place writing similar to this moreover – spending time and actual effort to have a really good article… but what / things I say… I procrastinate alot and no means often get something accomplished.
Sister Wives commented on 29-Oct-2017 01:31 PM
Polygamy, is a great Topic for Dating sites, Why not more out there.
20 minute pretox commented on 03-Nov-2017 02:08 PM
Only if I could run into some more posts like here, that would be great.

Post a Comment




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