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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
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Post a Comment




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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Carmon commented on 31-Aug-2017 12:03 AM
As a Newbie, I am continuously searching online for articles that can aid me.
Thank you

My homepageMichael Kors Watch Women Blue
facebook customer service number commented on 31-Aug-2017 11:05 PM
Password misplaced or not working for Facebook account.
Marylin commented on 01-Sep-2017 02:37 PM
What a data of un-ambiguity and preserveness of valuable knowledge concerning unexpected feelings.
http://hacenter.co.kr commented on 01-Sep-2017 04:57 PM
It's a pity you don't have a donate button! I'd most certainly
donate to this fantastic blog! I suppose for now i'll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to
my Google account. I look forward to new updates and will talk
about this site with my Facebook group. Chat soon!
If some one desires expert view concerning running a blog after that i advise him/her to pay a
visit this web site, Keep up the pleasant work.
facebook help centre number uk commented on 02-Sep-2017 10:43 PM
Social Media - Ask Questions on Twitter and Fb.
Sven commented on 03-Sep-2017 12:38 AM
I believe other website proprietors should take this website as an example, very clean and great user pleasant design.

Here is my website ::Pandora Charms Ottawa
Pilar commented on 03-Sep-2017 03:58 PM
I tend not to write many comments, however I looked at some of the comments here Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?.
I actually do have some questions for you if it's okay. Is it simply me or do a few of these remarks come across like they are written by brain dead visitors? :-P And, if you are posting on additional places, I'd like to follow anything new you have to post.
Would you post a list of all of your social sites like your twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?

my homepage: big Things
quickbooks customer service phone number commented on 04-Sep-2017 10:13 PM
Ok so I am a long time quickbooks user and I've a shopper
that switched to the on line product and after they switched it
gave the impression to be clean till lately.
Shelby commented on 07-Sep-2017 06:50 AM
Excellent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you're just too magnificent.
I actually like what you've acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it sensible. I can not wait to read far more from you. This is actually a wonderful site.


Also visit my web-site;private rn school in california
wwe champions free cash no survey commented on 08-Sep-2017 12:38 PM
Me like, will read more. Cheers!
Hilton commented on 09-Sep-2017 02:23 AM
Hello there! This article couldn't be written much
better! Going through this article reminds me of my previous roommate!
He always kept talking about this. I am going to send
this information to him. Pretty sure he's going to have a good
read. I appreciate you for sharing!
quickbooks customer service phone number commented on 09-Sep-2017 05:35 AM
For drawback or every question, it supplies 24/7 QuickBooks Technical Help Cellphone
Quantity +18009762560.
tradmusic.ru commented on 09-Sep-2017 07:12 AM
Hey there! I'm at work surfing around your blog from my new iphone 3gs!
Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to
all your posts! Keep up the outstanding work!
Spencer commented on 10-Sep-2017 02:47 AM
Thank you for the blog post. Jones and I have already been saving for just a new e book on this topic and your short article has made us all to save all of our money.

Your thinking really resolved all our queries. In fact, more than what we had recognized prior to when we discovered your excellent blog. My spouse and i no longer have doubts as well as a troubled mind because you have truly attended to our needs in this article.
Thanks

my web blog; misspelled Search
fertility Expert commented on 10-Sep-2017 02:19 PM
I visit each day a few websites and information sites
to read content, except this web site offers feature based posts.
Madie commented on 11-Sep-2017 04:00 AM
Thanks for the auspicious writeup. It in truth used to be a leisure account it.
Glance complicated to more added agreeable from you! However, how can we communicate?

Look into my web pageFree Cool Wordpress
France commented on 11-Sep-2017 04:01 AM
Would love to perpetually get updated great web blog!


Also visit my blog -Black friday 2010
siuvejai.lt commented on 11-Sep-2017 04:07 AM
I don't know whether it's just me or if everybody else experiencing issues with your
website. It appears as though some of the written text
on your posts are running off the screen. Can somebody else please comment and let me
know if this is happening to them as well? This could be a issue with
my browser because I've had this happen before.

Thank you
www.drumob.org commented on 11-Sep-2017 04:10 AM
Simply wish to say your article is as amazing. The clearness for your submit is just great and i could think
you are knowledgeable in this subject. Well with
your permission let me to take hold of your RSS feed to keep up to date
with coming near near post. Thank you 1,000,000 and please continue
the enjoyable work.
onesie animal commented on 11-Sep-2017 04:25 AM
My brother recommended I might like this web site.
He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine just
how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!
тв-юждаг.xn--p1ai commented on 11-Sep-2017 05:04 AM
Howdy! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be ok.
I'm definitely enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.
http://anichanga.net/board_PPuj28/4248 commented on 11-Sep-2017 05:58 AM
Hey there terrific blog! Does running a blog similar to this require a great deal of work?

I've very little knowledge of programming but I was hoping
to start my own blog in the near future. Anyway, should you have any recommendations or tips for new blog owners please share.
I know this is off subject but I simply had to ask.
Appreciate it!
www.drumob.org commented on 11-Sep-2017 07:10 AM
This piece of writing will assist the internet visitors for setting up new blog
or even a weblog from start to end.
http://petstomeet.com commented on 11-Sep-2017 03:14 PM
A motivating discussion is definitely worth comment.
I think that you ought to publish more about this subject, it may not
be a taboo subject but usually folks don't speak about such
subjects. To the next! All the best!!

Post a Comment




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Trackback Link
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