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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
schmuck commented on 11-Mar-2018 11:17 AM
Klasse gemachte Homapage, das Layout gefqellt mir echt gut!
War bestimmt ne menge Aufwand.
Porsche Akridge commented on 11-Mar-2018 12:37 PM
I don’t know why yet this website will be launching extremely sluggish for me personally. Is anyone else having this issue or possibly this any issue on my small conclusion? I’ll return down the road and see if the problem still is out there.
Heike Galvin commented on 11-Mar-2018 12:51 PM
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Fredric Leisure commented on 11-Mar-2018 02:06 PM
in China, they do not respect intellectual property at all. too many software and movie pirates out there,
STD Testing Near Me Nashville commented on 11-Mar-2018 02:26 PM
STD testing is supplied freed from charge.
Jon Correla commented on 11-Mar-2018 06:14 PM
Merely wanna admit that this is very beneficial , Thanks for taking your time to write this.
Walker Locascio commented on 11-Mar-2018 07:57 PM
I gotta favorite this internet site it seems handy invaluable
Hyacinth Propps commented on 11-Mar-2018 08:40 PM
I hope your knowledge gets spread around so a lot of people can see what the real problems are in this situation.
STD Testing Near Me Fort Worth commented on 11-Mar-2018 09:19 PM
Getting tested for STDs is vital to your well being.
Deidre Elmendorf commented on 11-Mar-2018 09:50 PM
You have really have made a good effort. Thanks for this amazing site.
Jayne Breheny commented on 11-Mar-2018 11:35 PM
Thank you for any other great article. The place else may just anyone get that type of information in such a perfect method of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m at the look for such info.
Fabian Strazza commented on 12-Mar-2018 04:12 AM
information and also style, which includes a incredibly bendable topography.
Angel Hammond commented on 12-Mar-2018 08:02 AM
informatii interesante si utile postate pe blogul dumneavoastra. dar ca si o paranteza , ce parere aveti de cazarea in regim hotelier ?.
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leaflet distribution commented on 12-Mar-2018 09:38 AM
Your website turned out really well I love the design. I will be considering something like this for my own business which is leaflet distribution based out of Ireland - Ken www.leafletdelivery.ie
leaflet distribution commented on 12-Mar-2018 09:38 AM
Your website turned out really well I love the design. I will be considering something like this for my own business which is leaflet distribution based out of Ireland - Ken www.leafletdelivery.ie
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STD Testing Near Me Fort Worth commented on 13-Mar-2018 03:43 AM
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Kayleigh Sandison commented on 13-Mar-2018 09:56 AM
I admire the valuable data you offer to your articles. I will bookmark your blog and have my children test up right here generally. I am fairly certain they’ll learn plenty of new stuff here than anybody else!
Wilton Wnuk commented on 14-Mar-2018 08:48 PM
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Mckenzie Aprigliano commented on 15-Mar-2018 12:15 PM
cleaning supplies should have earth friendly organic ingredients so that they do not harm the environment;;
Aimeric commented on 15-Mar-2018 04:16 PM
76 e-commerce has numerous social benefits: one, the cost of running an e-commerce business is very low when compared with running a physical store; two, there is no rent to pay on expensive premises; and three, business processes are simplified and less man-hours are required to run a typical business smoothly.

Also, as a vast network of people and information, the Internet is an enabler for e-commerce as it allows businesses to showcase and sell their products and services online and gives potential customers, prospects, and business partners access to information about these businesses and their products and services that would lead to purchase.

Well, what if one could pass out the business card to thousands, maybe millions of potential clients and partners, saying this is what I do and if you are ever in need of my services, this is how you can reach me. One can, 24 hours a day, inexpensively and simply, on the WWW.

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STD Testing Facilities Near Me commented on 15-Mar-2018 09:30 PM
Smith L, et al. Sexually transmitted infections.
Jorg commented on 16-Mar-2018 05:44 AM
Qi-based mostly wi-fi charging accessories may also be found in restaurants, espresso retailers, and different places, and these spots cost theiphone X giveaway X too.

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