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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
agen judi asia commented on 11-Feb-2018 09:09 PM
Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
you make blogging look easy. The overall look
of your web site is excellent, let alone the content!
prediksi bola 09 desember 2017 commented on 11-Feb-2018 09:17 PM
After looking at a few of the blog posts on your web site,
I honestly like your way of writing a blog.

I added it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon. Please check
out my website as well and let me know your opinion.
5 pemain terbaik dunia saat ini commented on 11-Feb-2018 10:51 PM
Greetings! Very helpful advice within this article! It's the little changes which will make the biggest changes.
Many thanks for sharing!
bandar togel Bonus pendaftaran commented on 12-Feb-2018 02:27 AM
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so much. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the year.
You are carrying out a really great job.[X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]I'm really inspired together with your writing talents and also
with the format for your blog. Is this a paid topic or did you customize it your self?
Either way stay up the nice high quality writing, it is uncommon to see a great weblog like this one today.
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Appreciate the recommendation. Let me try it out.
berita bola el clasico commented on 12-Feb-2018 01:10 PM
Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with the pictures on this
blog loading? I'm trying to figure out if its a problem on my end or if it's the blog.
Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
I was very pleased to find this website. I wanted to thank you for ones
time just for this fantastic read!! I definitely really liked every little bit of it and i also have you
book-marked to look at new stuff in your blog.
domino online commented on 13-Feb-2018 12:24 AM
I am really glad to read this weblog posts which includes tons of valuable facts, thanks for
providing these kinds of statistics.
dominoqq commented on 13-Feb-2018 01:15 AM
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domino online commented on 13-Feb-2018 10:16 AM
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I say to you, I definitely get irked while people think about worries that they
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top and also defined out the entire thing without having side-effects , folks can take a signal.
Will probably be again to get more. Thanks
Allyson Japak commented on 13-Feb-2018 08:54 PM
I wonder how many tires they went through shooting this video!.
toto hongkong pool commented on 14-Feb-2018 02:54 AM
Incredible points. Great arguments. Keep up the good effort.
domino nomor commented on 14-Feb-2018 09:05 AM
Hi there it's me, I am also visiting this web page daily, this site is in fact good and the users
are really sharing nice thoughts.
dominos c v raman nagar bangalore commented on 15-Feb-2018 03:13 PM
Hi there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?
My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due to no back up.
Do you have any solutions to protect against hackers?
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if advertising and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I'm adding this RSS to my email and could look out for much more of your respective interesting content.
Make sure you update this again very soon.
global-soul.tumblr.com commented on 16-Feb-2018 10:22 PM
I every time spent my half an hour to read this blog's posts everyday along with
a cup of coffee.
domino numbers commented on 17-Feb-2018 10:58 AM
We are a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community.
Your website offered us with valuable information to work on. You have done
a formidable job and our entire community will be thankful to you.
Aimeric commented on 17-Feb-2018 09:41 PM
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Alton commented on 18-Feb-2018 06:19 AM
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Continue posting.
Willis Setlock commented on 18-Feb-2018 10:35 PM
I are finding a great was to resolve my depression problems using the methods with this website. The have an answer for every budget and the services in for sale in 12 languages up to now: www.clithouse.com
Meggan Wizar commented on 20-Feb-2018 01:19 AM
Seriously?
Lili Sickler commented on 20-Feb-2018 01:22 AM
Great,, You solved my problem
agen judi sabung ayam commented on 20-Feb-2018 04:33 PM
Hiya! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I'd figured I'd ask.
Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa?

My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours
and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other.
If you're interested feel free to send me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you!
Terrific blog by the way!

Post a Comment




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