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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Bryon Parham commented on 14-Sep-2018 09:10 PM
I am very happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that’s at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.
Norah Vannover commented on 14-Sep-2018 09:41 PM
wonderful points altogether, you simply gained a brand new reader. What would you recommend about your post that you made a few days ago? Any positive?
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Amos Venditto commented on 15-Sep-2018 01:30 AM
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Mozella Asp commented on 15-Sep-2018 01:45 AM
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Bertram Hertle commented on 15-Sep-2018 05:29 AM
The book is great, but this review is not exactly spot-on. Being a Superhero is more about selecting foods that heal your body, not just eating meat/dairy-free. Processed foods like those mentioned in this review aren’t what Alicia is trying to promote. If you aren’t open to sea vegetables (and yes, I’m talking sea weed), just stop at vegan.
Susana Lubbert commented on 15-Sep-2018 05:34 AM
I am curious to find out what blog system you happen to be utilizing? I’m having some minor security issues with my latest site and I’d like to find something more secure. Do you have any suggestions?
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Leatha Pechar commented on 15-Sep-2018 07:43 AM
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Minta Leonides commented on 15-Sep-2018 08:14 AM
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Kerstin Hinchee commented on 15-Sep-2018 10:16 AM
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Nelson Erp commented on 15-Sep-2018 11:30 AM
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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Bryon Parham commented on 14-Sep-2018 09:10 PM
I am very happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that’s at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.
Norah Vannover commented on 14-Sep-2018 09:41 PM
wonderful points altogether, you simply gained a brand new reader. What would you recommend about your post that you made a few days ago? Any positive?
abnehmtabletten von dm commented on 14-Sep-2018 10:08 PM
Hey! Ꮤould you mind іf І share your blog witһ my facebook groᥙp?
There's a ⅼot of folks tһat I think w᧐uld really appreciatе your content.

Pleaѕe let me knoѡ. Cheers
activate giffgaff sim free commented on 14-Sep-2018 10:55 PM
Then, there's the fact that web presence is virtually free, there's no need to lay out for a lot of running costs, this means that prices come down, and
you can attract more people. Make sure you are firm in pushing the card back in, but aren't forcing it into the
slot. All together you can say that it is best to have an actual system that can help you win the Powerball
by using logical solutions.
Ocie Hood commented on 14-Sep-2018 11:07 PM
i could only wish that solar panels cost only several hundred dollars, i would love to fill my roof with solar panels”
Kathyrn Catrambone commented on 15-Sep-2018 12:13 AM
This important put up usually have a wide selection of website visitors. Ensure that support it? The software offers a awesome exclusive take with regards to methods. Reckon developing factor specific or perhaps hefty to make information on is an essential option.
Britney Niblock commented on 15-Sep-2018 01:13 AM
I view something truly special in this website .
Amos Venditto commented on 15-Sep-2018 01:30 AM
An attention-grabbing dialogue is worth comment. I think that it’s best to write extra on this subject, it won’t be a taboo subject however usually individuals are not sufficient to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers
Mozella Asp commented on 15-Sep-2018 01:45 AM
I discovered your blog site website on bing and appearance some of your early posts. Continue to keep the very good operate. I just additional increase your RSS feed to my MSN News Reader. Looking for forward to reading much more on your part at a later time!…
Walter Stream commented on 15-Sep-2018 02:04 AM
Wahhhh,!! I dnt think its food thats making her tummy groww!!|tiitaBoo|
Ariane Yoshioka commented on 15-Sep-2018 02:15 AM
Greetings I am so thrilled I found your webpage, I really found you by accident, while I was searching on Aol for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot for a tremendous post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to look over it all at the minute but I have saved it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the fantastic job.
Peter Leaven commented on 15-Sep-2018 02:21 AM
I was reading through some of your blog posts on this site and I think this web site is really instructive! Keep on putting up.
Car Electronic Repair commented on 15-Sep-2018 02:44 AM
Ahaa, its good conversation regarding this post here at
this web site, I have read all that, so now me also commenting at this
place.
Blair Norrell commented on 15-Sep-2018 03:16 AM
Cmoe on. Fnots dnot laed the eeys, eevrynoe konws taht poelpe raed trhuhog a pocrses faxtitnig pirmraliy on frsit and lsat ltertrs cmoibend wtih an orevlal vsiaul txet ipmerisson.
Annamaria Mcentyre commented on 15-Sep-2018 03:16 AM
Nice post. I find out some thing more challenging on various blogs everyday. Most commonly it is stimulating to learn content off their writers and use a specific thing from their site. I’d choose to use some while using content on my small weblog regardless of whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll offer you a link in your web blog. Many thanks for sharing.
Jude Leversee commented on 15-Sep-2018 03:31 AM
you have got a wonderful weblog here! do you need to develop invite posts on my own blog?
Bertram Hertle commented on 15-Sep-2018 05:29 AM
The book is great, but this review is not exactly spot-on. Being a Superhero is more about selecting foods that heal your body, not just eating meat/dairy-free. Processed foods like those mentioned in this review aren’t what Alicia is trying to promote. If you aren’t open to sea vegetables (and yes, I’m talking sea weed), just stop at vegan.
Susana Lubbert commented on 15-Sep-2018 05:34 AM
I am curious to find out what blog system you happen to be utilizing? I’m having some minor security issues with my latest site and I’d like to find something more secure. Do you have any suggestions?
Buy Kids Wear India - Sudarshansilk.com commented on 15-Sep-2018 05:36 AM
Hi my friend! I wish to say that this article is awesome, nice
written and come with approximately all significant infos.
I'd like to see more posts like this .
Nestor Rombs commented on 15-Sep-2018 07:01 AM
I have been checking out a few of your stories and i must say nice stuff. I will surely bookmark your website
Leatha Pechar commented on 15-Sep-2018 07:43 AM
I like this site very much so much superb information.
Minta Leonides commented on 15-Sep-2018 08:14 AM
The next time I read a blog, I am hoping that it doesnt disappoint me about that one. I mean, It was my method to read, but I personally thought youd have some thing intriguing to convey. All I hear can be a bunch of whining about something that you could fix in the event you werent too busy looking for attention.
Romana Naze commented on 15-Sep-2018 08:30 AM
I think you have a nice site here… i just happened to find it doing a yahoo search. anyway, excellent post.. i’ll be bookmarking this page for certain.
Kerstin Hinchee commented on 15-Sep-2018 10:16 AM
Great blog!! You should start many more. I love all the info provided. I will stay tuned
Nelson Erp commented on 15-Sep-2018 11:30 AM
aggressive as men when they are driving. They are much less likely to be the instigator in a road rage incident, for example. It is also

Post a Comment




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